Chapter 14 - Expressing Uncertainty - Giving Orders

In the Italian language, when the primary idea of a sentence is an expression of uncertainty, denial, impersonal condition, a request or a command to do something, any secondary idea will require a special verb form.  Here are some examples.
            It is possible that it will rain today.
This sentence has two parts.  First, there is an expression of uncertainty (“It is possible..”).  Then, there is a secondary idea, namely that it might rain.
            I doubt that John will arrive on time.
There are two parts to the sentence.  First there is an expression of doubt, which is the primary idea.  Then, there is the secondary idea, namely what is doubted.
            The court ordered that he pay the fine.
Again, we have two ideas.  First, that a court issued an order, and second what the order was.
            In case of fire, break the glass.
This statement refers to a command to do something when a certain condition exists.
            I hope that our team will win this game.
This sentence is a statement of personal desire.
            The law requires that each person pay taxes.
This sentence describes an impersonal condition, namely a legal requirement.

In English, we depend on several methods to express these ideas, but in Italian, a special verb is required in the second part of such a sentence.
This special verb is called the subjunctive, and is required more often in Italian than in English.
The English translation might take one of several forms, but, generally, the present or future tense will be used.

Here are some examples of its use.
I hope that John arrives on time. Io spero che Giovanni arrivi in punto.
It is necessary that you study. Bisogna che voi studiate.
The law requires that you pay taxes. La lẹgge richiede che tu paghi imposte
In case of fire, break the glass. In caso di fuoco, rompa il vetro.
It is possible that they will win the game. Ẹ possibile che loro vịncano la partita.
We hope they know the address. Noi speriamo che loro sappiano l’indirizzo.
She wants you to make dinner. Lei vuò che tu prepari il pranzo.


Giving orders

These same verb forms are used to give orders, and are referred to as formal commands.  Some examples follow.                       

Please, order the wine. Per favore, ordini il vino.
Turn left at the bridge. Vada a sinistra al ponte.
Do it right away. Lo faccia sụbito.

Group 1 verbs end in -are, example: mandare, to send.
The verb forms are made by replacing the endings of the io form of the present tense with the endings -i, -i, -i, -iamo, -iate, -ino

I io mand + i mandi (mAHn-dee)
you tu mand + i mandi (mAHn-dee)
he, she, who lei, lui, chi mand + i mandi (mAHn-dee)
we noi mand + iamo mandiamo (mahn-dyAH-moh)
you voi mand + iate mandiate (mahn-dyAH-tay)
they, who loro, who mạnd + ino mạndino (mAHn-dee-noh)

Because of the fact that the present tense is used as the basis for verb formation, any irregularities in that tense will also appear in these forms.

In group 1, the following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive tense
accecare, to blind:  acciẹchi, acciẹchi, acciẹchi, accechiamo, accechiate, acciẹchino
andare, to go:  vada, vada, vada, andiamo, andiate, vạdano
                Like andare:         riandare, to go back
arenare, to run aground:  arẹni, arẹni, arẹni, areniamo, areniate, arẹnino
avviare, to set in motion:  avvìi, avvìi, avvìi, avviamo, avviate, avvìino
dare, to give:  dịa, dịa, dịa, diamo, diate, dịano
esaminare, to examine:  esạmini, esạmini, esạmini, esaminiamo, esaminiate, esạminino
These verbs are irregular because, although the infinitives are pronounced regularly, the accent is changed in the stem (esamin-) from the last vowel to the second to last vowel.  Using esaminare as an example, the infinitive is pronounced ay-zah-mee-nAH-ray.  Thus, under the regular rule, the io form would be pronounced ay-zah-mEE-nee, but it is actually pronounced ay-zAH-mee-nee.  There are too many of these verbs to be listed here. Please consult the appendix.

fare, to do, make:  faccia, faccia, faccia, facciamo, facciate, fạcciano
Like fare: assuefare, to accustom, inure contraffare, to counterfeit disassuefare, to give up a habit
disfare, to undo liquefare, to liquify putrefare, to putrify
rarefare, to rarefy rifare, to do over, repeat sfare, to undo, to thaw, melt
soddisfare, to satisfy soprafare, to overwhelm strafare, to do too much, overdo
stupefare, to stupefy torrefare, to roast tumefare, to swell

ridare, to give back:  ridịa, ridịa, ridịa, ridiamo, ridiate, ridịano
ristare, to stop, desist:  ristịa, ristịa, ristịa, ristiamo, ristiate, ristịano
sonare, to sound, to play:  suǫni, suǫni, suǫni, soniamo, soniate,suǫnino
                Like sonare:                dissonare, to be dissonant                 risonare, to resound, to play again
                rotare, to rotate         tonare, to thunder
stare, to stand:  stịa, stịa, stịa, stiamo, stiate, stịano

Group 2 verbs end in -ere or -rre, examples: presụmere, to presume.  The verb forms are made by replacing the endings of the ioform of the present tense with the endings -a, -a, -a, -iamo, -iate, -ano.

I io presum + a presuma (pray-zOO-mah)
you tu presum + a presuma (pray-zOO-mah)
he, she, who lei, lui chi presum + a presuma (pray-zOO-mah)
we noi presum + iamo presumiamo (pray-zoo-myAH-moh)
you voi presum + iate presumiate (pray-zoo-myAH-tay)
they, who loro, chi presụm + ano presụmano (pray-zOO-mah-noh)

Because of the fact that the present tense is used as the basis for verb formation, any irregularities in that tense will also appear in these forms.

In group 2, the following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive tense

addurre, to adduce:  adduca, adduca, adduca, adduciamo, adduciate, addùcano
Like addure: condurre, to conduct, to lead dedurre, to deduce
indurre, to induce introdurre, to introduce produrre, to produce
reintrodurre, to reintroduce ricondurre, to bring back ridurre, to reduce
riprodurre, to reproduce sedurre, to seduce tradurre, to translate

astrarre,to abstract:  astragga, astragga, astragga, astraiamo, astraiate, astrạggano
Like astrarre: attrarre, to attract contrarre, to contract
decontrarre, to relax detrarre, to detract distrarre, to distract
estrarre, to extract protrarre, to protract ricontrarre, to contract again
ritrarre, to retract sottrarre, to subtract trarre, to pull, draw toward

avere, to have:  ạbbia, ạbbia, ạbbia, abbiamo, abbiate, ạbbiano

cǫgliere, to gather:  colga, colga, colga, cogliamo, cogliate, cǫlgano
Like cǫgliere: accǫgliere, to welcome devǫlvere, to assign
disciǫgliere, to dissolve distǫgliere, to withdraw equivalere, to be equivalent
invalere, to catch on, become fashionable prevalere, to be prevalent, to prevail
riaccǫgliere, to readmit someone ritǫgliere, to take away again scẹgliere, to choose
sciǫgliere, to untie, to loosen tǫgliere, to take away valere, to be worth

conoscere, to know:  conọsca, conọsca, conọsca, conosciamo, conosciate, conọscano
                Like conoscere:                                    disconoscere, to disclaim                   riconoscere, to recognize
crẹscere, to grow:  crẹsca, crẹsca, crẹsca, cresciamo, cresciate, crẹscano
                [These verbs are irregular because the soft sc of the stem is hard in four of six forms.]
                Like crescere:                                      nạscere, to be born                              ricrẹscere, to regrow
                rinạscere, to be reborn                       rincrẹscere, to regret
cuǫcere, to cook:  cuocia, cuocia, cuocia, cociamo, cociate, cuǫciano
                Like cuǫcere:                                      ricuǫcere, to recook                            scuǫcere, to overcook
divẹllere, to uproot:  divelga, divelga, divelga, divelliamo, divelliate, divẹlgano
                Like divẹllere:                                     eccẹllere, to excel                                espẹllere, to expel
                repẹllere, to repel                               svẹllere, to tear out
dolere, to suffer, ache:  dǫlga, dǫlga, dǫlga, dogliamo, doliate, dǫlgano
dovere, to be obliged to:  deva, deva, deva, dobbiamo, dobbiate, dẹvano

emẹrgere, to emerge:  emerga, emerga, emerga, emergiamo, emergiate, emẹrgano
Like emẹrgere: accǫrgere, to perceive aggiụngere, to add
aspẹrgere, to sprinkle attịngere, to attain cịngere, to surround
congiụngere, to join, unite cospạrgere, to scatter, sprinkle costrịngere, to compel
convẹrgere, to converge dipịngere, to depict dirịgere, to direct
disgiụngere, to disjoin, separate disụngere, to degrease divẹrgere, to diverge
emụlgere, to soften ẹrgere, to raise, lift up erịgere, to erect
espụngere, to expunge esịgere, to demand fịngere, to feign, pretend
frạngere, to break fụngere, to act as someone giụngere, to join
immẹrgere, to immerge indụlgere, to indulge ingiụngere, to enjoin, to order
interpụngere, to punctuate mụngere, to milk neglịgere, to neglect
piạngere, to cry, weep pịngere, to paint pǫrgere, to hand something to someone
predilịgere, to be fond of s.t. pụngere, to prick, sting raggiụngere, to catch up, up to, up with
redịgere, to draw up, draft ricongiụngere, to reconnect riemẹrgere, to re-emerge
rifrạngere, to refract rifụlgere, to shine rimpiạngere, to regret
rinvǫlgere, to rewrap ripịngere, to repaint ritịngere, to redye
risǫrgere, to rise again risospịngere, to push again scǫrgere, to make out, distinguish
sconvǫlgere, to upset smụngere, to bleed, milk, squeeze soggiụngere, to add
sommẹrgere, to submerge sopragiụngere, to appear  suddenly sǫrgere, to rise, get up
spạrgere, to scatter, strew spịngere, to push, shove spǫrgere, to stick out, protrude
stịngere, to fade, lose color strịngere, to clasp, hold tightly svǫlgere, to unwind
tẹrgere, to wipe clean, away tịngere, to dye, tint vǫlgere, to wrap
ụngere, to oil, lubricate

ęssere, to be:  sịa, sịa, sịa, siamo, siate, sịano
                Like essere:                                                                           riessere, to be again
giacere, to lie down:  giaccia, giaccia, giaccia, giacciamo, giacciate, giạcciano
                Like giacere:                                       dispiacere, to displease                     piacere, to please
                scompiacere, to be unkind                 soggiacere, to be subject to              spiacere, to be sorry, to regret
                tacere, to be silent

[These verbs are irregular because the soft gg of the infinitive is hard in four of the six forms.]
lęggere, to read:  legga, legga, legga, leggiamo, leggiate, lẹggano
Like lęggere: affịggere, to affix afflịggere, to afflict
corrẹggere, to correct distrụggere, to destroy elęggere, to elect
figgere, to fix, stick frịggere, to fry infịggere, to drive, thrust
inflịggere, to inflict prefịggere, to arrange in advance protẹggere, to protect
rẹggere, to hold rielęggere, to re-elect rifrịggere, to refry
rilęggere, to read again sconfịggere, to defeat, vanquish strụggere, to melt, thaw
trafịggere, to transfigure

muǫvere, to move:  muova, muova, muova, moviamo, moviate, muǫvano
                Like muovere:                                      commuǫvere, to move emotionally  perscuǫtere, to strike
                promuǫvere, to promote                    rimuǫvere, to remove                         riscuǫtere, to collect or draw a salary
                scuǫtere, to shake                              smuǫvere, to budge                            sommuǫvere, to incite, stir up
nuǫcere, to harm:  noccia, noccia, noccia, nociamo, nociate, nǫcciano
parere, to seem:  paia, paia, paia, pariamo, pariate, pạiano

pọrre, to put, place:  pọnga, pọnga, pọnga, poniamo, poniate, pọngano
Like pọrre: antepọrre, to place or put before appọrre, to append
compọrre, to compose contrappọrre, to contrast contropropọrre, to counterpropose
decompọrre, to decompose depọrre, to put, set, lay down dispọrre, to dispose
espọrre, to expose fotocompọrre, to photocompose frappọrre, to interpose
giustappọrre, to juxtapose impọrre, to impose indispọrre, to irritate; to annoy
interpọrre, to interpose oppọrre, to oppose pospọrre, to postpone
predispọrre, to predispose prepọrre, to place before presuppọrre, to presuppose
propọrre, to propose ricompọrre, to recompose ridispọrre, to rearrange
riespọrre, to expound again ripọrre, to replace ripropọrre, to repropose
scompọrre, to take apart, dismantle sottoespọrre, to underexpose sottopọrre, to place underneath
sovraespọrre, to overexpose sovrappọrre, to superimpose sovrimpọrre, to overlay
suppọrre, to suppose traspọrre, to transpose

potere, to be able, can:  possa, possa, possa, possiamo, possiate, pǫssano
riavere, to have again, recover:  riạbbia, riạbbia, riạbbia, riabbiamo, riabbiate, riạbbiano
rimanere, to remain:  rimanga, rimanga, rimanga, rimaniamo, rimaniate, rimạngano
sapere, to know:  sappia, sappia , sappia, sappiamo, sapiate, sạppiano
sedere, to sit:  siẹda, siẹda, siẹda, sediamo, sediate, siẹdano
                Like sedere:        possedere, to possess                          risedere, to reseat, to sit down again
solere, to be in the habit of:  soglia, soglia, soglia, sogliamo, sogliate, sǫgliano
                Like solere:       volere, to want
spẹgnere, to extinguish:  spenga, spenga, spenga,, spegniamo, spegniate, spẹngano

tenere, to hold:  tenga, tenga, tenga, teniamo, teniate, tẹngano
Like tenere: appartenere, to belong to contenere, to contain
detenere, to detain mantenere, to maintain ottenere, to obtain
ritenere, to retain sostenere, to sustain trattenere, to restrain


tǫrcere, to twisttorca, torca, torca, torciamo, torciate, tǫrcano

Like tenere: appartenere, to belong to contenere, to contain
detenere, to detain mantenere, to maintain ottenere, to obtain
ritenere, to retain sostenere, to sustain trattenere, to restrain


trarre, to draw:  tragga, tragga, tragga, traiamo, traiate, trạggano

Like trarre: attrarre, to attract astrarre, to abstract
contrarre, to contract detrarre, to detract distrarre, to distract
estrarre, to extract protrarre, to protract ritrarre, to retract
sottrarre, to subtract

vịncere, to win:  vinca, vinca, vinca, vinciamo, vinciate, vịncano
                Like vincere:                                         avvịncere, to charm                            convịncere, to convince
                convịncersi, to convince oneself      evincere, to be evident                       stravincere, to win overwhelmingly, trounce
volere, to want:  voglia, voglia, voglia, vogliamo, vogliate, vǫgliano
                Like volere:                                           benvolere, to like someone               disvolere, to stop liking someone
                malvolere, to dislike someone           rivolere, to want someone or something back

Group3 verbs end in -ire. example: finire, to finish.  The verb forms are made by replacing the endings of the ioform of the present tense with the endings -a, -a, -a, -iamo, -iate, -ano.

I io finisc + a finisca (fee-nEE-scah)
you tu finisc + a finisca (fee-nEE-scah)
he, she, who lei, lui, chi finisc + a finisca (fee-nEE-scah)
we noi fin + iamo finiamo (feen-yAH-moh)
you voi fin + iate finiate (feen-yAH-tay)
they, who loro, chi finịsc + ano finịscano (fee-nEEs-cah-noh)

Because of the fact that the present tense is used as the basis for verb formation, any irregularities in that tense will appear in these forms.

In group 3, the following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive tense

aprire, to open:  apra, apra, apra, apriamo, apriate, ạprano
Like aprire: assentire, to assent avvertire, to advise, inform
bollire, to boil conseguire, to obtain consentire, to consent
convertire, to convert coprire, to cover discoprire, to discover
disinvestire, to disinvest dissentire, to dissent divertire, to amuse
dormire, to sleep offrire, to offer eseguire, to execute
inseguire, to chase after invertire, to invert investire, to invest
partire, to start pentire, to repent perseguire, to pursue
pervertire, to pervert preavvertire, to forewarn presentire, to present
proseguire, to prosecute reinvestire, to reinvest riaprire, to reopen
riavvertire, to advise again ribollire, to reboil riconvertire, to reconvert
ricoprire, to cover again riscoprire, to rediscover rieseguire, to execute again
risentire, to hear again rivestire, to dress again sbollire, to cool off
scoprire, to discover, uncover seguire, to follow sentire, to feel
servire, to serve sobbollire, to simmer soffrire, to suffer
sortire, to go out sovvertire, to subvert susseguire, to follow, succeed
svestire, to undress vestire, to dress vestirsi, to dress oneself

cucire, to sew:  cucia, cucia, cucia, cuciamo, cuciate, cùciano
                Like cucire:                                                           ricucire, to sew again                         scucire, to unravel

dire, to say:  dica, dica, dica, diciamo, diciate, dịcano
Like dire: benedire, to bless contraddire, to contradict
disdire, to retract interdire, to interdict, prohibit maledire, to curse
predire, to predict ridire, to repeat ribenedire, to bless again

empire, to fill, fill up, fill in:  empia, empia, empia, empiamo, empiate, empịrano
                Like empire:                                                         riempire, to refill
fuggire, to flee, to escape:  fugga, fugga, fugga, fuggiamo, fuggiate, fggano
                [These verbs are irregular because the soft gg of the infinitive is hard in four of the six forms.]
                Like fuggire:                                                         muggire, to moo                                  rifuggire, to flee, escape again
                ruggire, to roar, bellow                                       sfuggire, to shun, avoid
morire, to die:  muoia, muoia, muoia, moriamo, moriate, muǫiono
                Like morire:        premorire, to die before, predecease
salire, to go forth, go up, climb:  salga, salga, salga, saliamo, saliate, sạlgano
                Like salire:         assalire, to assault                              risalire, to go up again
udire, to hear:  oda, oda oda, udiamo, udiate, ǫdano
                Like udire:         riudire, to hear again
uscire, to go out:  esca, esca, esca, usciamo, usciate, ẹscano
                Like uscire:         fuoriuscire, to come out, leak           riuscire, to go out again

venire, to come;   venga, venga, venga, veniamo, veniate, v?ngano
Like venire: addivenire, to come to avvenire, to happen
circonvenire, to circumvent contravenire, to contravene convenire, to convene
divenire, to become intervenire, to intervene pervenire, to reach
prevenire, to prevent riconvenire, to reconvene ridivenire, to become again
rinvenire, to rediscover, recover risoveniresi, to recollect  rivenire, to come back
sconvenire, to be unbecoming sovvenire, to help svenire, to faint