Chapter 17 - Past forms of the verbs

The past forms of verbs are those such as arrived, baked, cooked, eaten, spoken, and so on.  In English, the past forms are usually made by adding an ending to the root verb.
For example, -en is added to eat, and -ed is added to talk.  Some of the forms are irregular, such as sunk (from sink).
Past forms are used with the verbs to be or to have to make the compound verb forms (such as are used, have gone and so on), and they are also used as adjectives.
We say the spoken word, the cooked meat, and so on.  A similar situation exists in Italian.

Group 1 verbs
Most of the past forms of the verbs in group 1 are made by adding the ending -atoto the stem.
            examples:        andare, to go               andato, gone               chiamare, to call         chiamato, called
                                   giocare, to play           giocato, played            parlare, to speak         parlato, spoken

The verb fare, and its compounds, have a past form ending in -atto.
Like fare: assuefare, to accustom, inure contraffare, to counterfeit disassuefare, to give up a habit
disfare, to undo liquefare, to liquify putrefare, to putrify
rarefare, to rarefy rifare, to do over, repeat sfare, to undo, to thaw, melt
soddisfare, to satisfy soprafare, to overwhelm strafare, to do too much, overdo
stupefare, to stupefy torrefare, to roast tumefare, to swell

In group 1, there are no other irregular verbs.

Group 3 verbs
In group 3, the regular past forms are made by adding the ending -ito to the stem.
            examples:        finire, to finish             finito, finished             partire, to part         partito, parted
In group 3, the following verbs and their compounds have irregular past forms.

apparire, to appear; past form = apparso
Like apparire: comparire, to show oneself riapparire, to reappear
ricomparire, to show up again; to turn up scomparire, to disappear
sparire, to vanish trasparire, to shine or show through

aprire, to open;  past form = aperto
Like aprire: coprire, to cover disasprire, to mollify
inasprire, to embitter riaprire, to reopen ricoprire, to cover again
riscoprire, to rediscover scoprire, to uncover

dire, to say;  past form = detto
Like dire: benedire, to bless contradire, to contradict
disdire, to retract interdire, to interdict, prohibit maledire, to curse
predire, to predict ridire, to repeat ribenedire, to bless again

morire, to die;  past form = morto
Like morire:
premorire, to die before; to predecease smorire, to look pale

offrire, to offer;  past form = offerto
Like offrire: rioffrire, to reoffer soffrire, to suffer

venire, to come;  past form = venuto
Like venire: addivenire, to come to avvenire, to happen
circonvenire, to circumvent contravenire, to contravene convenire, to convene
divenire, to become intervenire, to intervene pervenire, to reach
prevenire, to prevent riconvenire, to reconvene ridivenire, to become again
rinvenire, to rediscover, recover risoveniresi, to recollect  rivenire, to come back
sconvenire, to be unbecoming sovvenire, to help svenire, to faint

note: The verbs disseppellire(to exhume), riseppellire(to rebury), and seppellire(to bury) have both regular (~lito) and irregular forms (~polto).

Although they belong to group 2, all of the verbs which end in -ịstere have past forms using -ito as the ending.  The complete list of such verbs follows.

assịstere, to be present; assistito coesịstere, to coexist; coesistito consịstere, to consist; consistito 
desịstere, to desist; desistito esịstere, to exist; esistito insịstere, to insist; insistito
persịstere, to persist; persistito preesịstere, to preexist; preesistito resịstere, to resist; resistito
sussịstere, to subsist; sussistito

Group 2 verbs
In group 2, most of the verbs have regular forms which are made by adding -uto to the stem.
            examples:  cadere, to fall        caduto, fallen              vẹndere, to sell            venduto, sold

With two exceptions (nạscereand rinạscere), if the verb ends in -cere, the ending -iuto is used to maintain the soft sound of the letter c.   example:  giacere, to lie down    giaciuto
[The past forms of nascere and rinascere are nato and rinato.]

Some past forms follow patterns set by a root verb.  These patterns follow.

When the simple past tense is formed by using the endings -si or -ssi, the past form is made by using the stem of the simple past tense.
Verbs with the endings -si and -ssi separate easily into two subgroups.  These are characterized by a stress on the stem.

            Subgroup 1 - verbs which end in -si in the simple past tense
            The past forms of some group 2 verbs which have a stress on the stem (such as accẹndere, where the
            stem is accẹnd-) have irregular past forms which are made from the first person singular (the “I”
             form) of the simple past tense.  Using the verb accẹndere (to light) as an example,  the first person
            singular of the simple past tense is accesi.  The past form is made by dropping the ending -i, and
            adding -o.  Thus, the past form is acceso.  The shortened stems of the simple past tense are shown in
            bold type.

One exception: propndere, to be inclined = propenso
ạrdere, to burn past form = arso  
Like ạrdere: riạrdere, to burn again
accẹndere, to ignite past form = acceso
Like accẹndere: accondiscẹndere, to acquiesce
appẹndere, to append apprẹndere, to learn ascẹndere, to ascend
attẹndere, to wait comprẹndere, to comprehend condiscẹndere, to condescend
contẹndere, to contend difẹndere, to defend dipẹndere, to depend
disattẹndere, to disregard discẹndere, to descend distẹndere, to distend
estẹndere, to extend fraintẹndere, to misunderstand, misinterpret
intẹndere, to intend intraprẹndere, to undertake offẹndere, to offend
prẹndere, to take, to catch   pretẹndere, to pretend
protẹndere, to hold or stretch out rapprẹndere, to congeal rẹndere, to give back, return
riaccẹndere, to light again  riappẹndere, to hang up again riapprẹndere, to re-learn
ridiscẹndere, to redescend   riprẹndere, to take again scẹndere, to go down
soprintẹndere, to supervise sorprẹndere, to surprise sospẹndere, to suspend
sottintęndere, to imply, drive at spẹndere, to spend stẹndere, to stretch out
tẹndere, to stretch, tighten trascẹndere, to transcend vilipẹndere, to vilify, revile, to defame
arrịdere, to smile upon past form = arriso
Like arrịdere: assịdersi, to sit down circoncịdere, to circumcise
coincịdere, to coincide collịdere, to collide condivịdere, to share
decịdere, to decide derịdere, to deride, mock divịdere, to divide
elịdere, to elide incịdere, to cut into, incise  intrịdere, to mix
irrịdere, to deride, to mock rịdere, to laugh ridivịdere, to redivide
sorrịdere, to smile, to grin   strịdere, to screech suddivịdere, to subdivide
uccịdere. to kill
acclụdere, to include past form = accluso
Like acclụdere: allụdere, to allude chiụdere, to close
collụdere, to collude conclụdere, to conclude delụdere, to delude
dischiụdere, to disclose disillụdere, to disillusion elụdere, to elude
esclụdere, to exclude estrụdere, to extrude illụdere, to deceive
inclụdere, to include intrụdere, to intrude occlụdere, to occlude
preclụdere, to preclude prelụdere, to be a sign, presage protrụdere, to protrude
prụdere, to itch, be itchy racchiụdere, to contain, hold reclụdere, to be reclusive
richiụdere, to close again rinchiụdere, to shut or lock up schiụdere, to unlock
socchiụdere, to half-close
aspẹrgere, to sprinkle past form = asperso
Like aspẹrgere: astẹrgere, to wipe away, cleanse convẹrgere, to converge
detẹrgere, to cleanse, wash dispẹrdere, to disperse divẹrgere, to diverge
emẹrgere, to emerge immẹrgere, to immerse pẹrdere, to lose
riemẹrgere, to re-emerge sommẹrgere, to submerge tẹrgere, to wipe off or away
cọrrere, to run past form = corso
Like cọrrere decọrrere, to elapse discọrrere, to talk about
incọrrere, to incur intercọrrere, to elapse occọrrere, to occur
precọrrere, to precede trascọrrere, to pass or spend time
evạdere, to evade past form = evaso
Like evạdere: dissuạdere, to dissuade invạdere, to invade
persuạdere, to persuade rạdere, to shave
contụndere, to bruise past form = contuso
cospạrgere, to sprinkle past form = cosparso
eccẹllere, to excel past form = eccelso
espẹllere, to expel past form = espulso
Like espẹllere:  repẹllere, to repel
esplǫdere, to explode past form = esploso
Like esplǫdere: corrọdere, to corrode erọdere, to erode
implǫdere, to implode riesplǫdere, to explode again rọdere, to gnaw
fọndere, to fuse, smelt  past form = fuso
Like fọndere: circonfọndere, to surround confọndere, to confuse
diffọndere, to diffuse effọndere, to pour out, effuse infọndere, to infuse
profọndere, to lavish soffọndere, to suffuse trasfọndere, to transfuse
mǫrdere, to bite past form = morso
Like mǫrdere: demǫrdere, to give up, quit rimǫrdere, to bite again or back
spạrgere, to scatter, strew past form = sparso

In this group, some past forms are made by dropping the ending -si and adding -to to the stem of the first person singular of the simple past tense.
For example, the verb is accǫrgere, the first person singular of the simple past tense is accorsi, the ending -siis dropped and -to is added, making accorto.
The shortened stems of the simple past tense are shown in bold type.

the following verbs also belong to this group.
accǫrgersi, to perceive aggiụngere, to add assụrgere, to rise
attịngere, to attain attǫrcere, to twist avvịncere, to charm
avvǫlgere, to wrap, wrap up capovǫlgere, to overturn cịngere, to gird
coinvǫlgere, to involve convịncere to convince convịncersi, to convince oneself
dipịngere, to depict disgiụngere, to disjoin, to sever dissǫlvere, to dissolve
distịnguere, to distinguish distǫrcere, to distort divẹllere, to uproot
ẹrgere, to raise, lift up estịnguere, to extinguish evịncere, to infer
fịngere, to feign frạngere, to break, smash fụngere, to act as someone
giụngere, to arrive indụlgere, to indulge infrạngere, to infringe
insǫrgere, to rebel, revolt mụngere, to milk piạngere, to weep
pǫrgere, to offer pụngere, to prick ricongiụngere, to rejoin
risǫlvere, to resolve risǫrgere, to rise again sọrgere, to rise
spạndere, to spread spịngere, to push spǫrgere, to stick out
stravịncere, to trounce, crush svẹllere, to tear out tịngere, to tint, dye
tǫrcere, to twist ụngere, to oil, grease vịncere, to win
vǫlgere, to turn
assụmere, to assume past form = assunto
Like assụmere: consụmere, to consume desụmere, to deduce, infer, gather
presụmere, to presume riassụmere, to resume
cǫgliere, to gather past form = colto
Like cǫgliere accǫgliere, to welcome disciǫgliere, to dissolve
distǫgliere, to withdraw riaccǫgliere, to readmit someone ritǫgliere, to take away again
scẹgliere, to choose sciǫgliere, to untie, to loosen tǫgliere, to take away
pọrre, to put   past form = pọsto
Like pọrre:
antepọrre, to place or put before appọrre, to append compọrre, to compose
contrappọrre, to contrast contropropọrre, to counteroffer decompọrre, to decompose
depọrre, to put, set, lay down dispọrre, to dispose espọrre, to expose
fotocompọrre, to photocompose frappọrre, to interpose giustappọrre, to juxtapose
impọrre, to impose indispọrre, to irritate; to annoy interpọrre, to interpose
oppọrre, to oppose pospọrre, to postpone predispọrre, to predispose
prepọrre, to place before presuppọrre, to presuppose propọrre, to propose
ricompọrre, to recompose ridispọrre, to rearrange riespọrre, to exhibit, display, expose
ripọrre, to replace ripropọrre, to repropose scompọrre, to take apart, dismantle
sottoespọrre, to underexpose sottopọrre, to place underneath sovraespọrre, to overexpose
sovrappọrre, to superimpose sovrimpọrre, to overlay suppọrre, to suppose
traspọrre, to transpose
redịmere, to redeem past form = redento
spẹgnere, to put out past form = spento

            Subgroup 2 - verbs which end in -ssi in the simple past tense
            Like accẹndere, the verbs in this subgroup have a stress on the stem.  The past forms
            are made from the first person singular of the simple past tense.  Using affịggere as an example,
            the first person singular of the simple past tense is affissi.  The past form is made by dropping the
            last letter, -i, and adding -o.  Thus, the past form is affisso.  Compound of the root verb have the
            same irregularities as the root verb.  Some of the compound verbs are listed here.  The shortened
            stems of the simple past tense are shown in bold type.

affịggere, to affix past form = affisso
Like affịggere: annẹttere, to annex circonflẹttere, to bend around
concẹdere, to concede connẹttere, to connect deflẹttere, to deflect
discụtere, to discuss rescịndere, to rescind riflẹttere, to reflect
scịndere, to separate sconnẹttere, to disconnect

           The following verbs also belong to this group.          

imprịmere, to impress past form = impresso (from the simple past tense impressi)
Like imprịmere: comprịmere, to compress decomprịmere, to decompress
deprịmere, to depress esprịmere, to express opprịmere, to oppress

In this group, some past forms are made by adding the ending -tto to the stem of the first person singular of the simple past tense.
For example, fịggere, fissi, fitto; scrịvere, scrissi, scritto.  The shortened stems of the simple past tense are shown in bold type.

The following verbs also belong to this group.
corrẹggere, to correct past form = corretto (from the simple past tense corressi)
Like corrẹggere: elęggere, to elect lęggere, to read
rẹggere, to hold ricorrẹggere, to correct again rielęggere, to reelect
rilęggere, to read again, reread sorrẹggere, to uphold, support sprotẹggere, to unprotect
cuǫcere, to cook past form = cotto (from the simple past tense cossi)
Like cuǫcere: percuǫtere, to strike ricuǫcere, to recook
riscuǫtere, to draw a salary   scuǫcere, to overcook scuǫtere, to shake
stracuǫcere, to overdo
dirịgere, to direct past form = diretto (from the simple past tense diressi)
Like dirịgere: erịgere, to erect (eretto) neglịgere, to neglect (negletto)
fịggere, to fix past form = fitto (from the simple past tense fissi)
Like fịggere: affịggere, to affix afflịggere, to afflict
confịggere, to nail conflịggere, to conflict crocifịggere, to crucify
distrụggere, to destroy frịggere, to fry infịggere, to drive, thrust
inflịggere, to inflict prefịggere, to arrange in advance rifrịggere, to refry
sconfịggere, to defeat, vanquish sfrịggere, to sizzle soffrịggere, to fry slowly, brown
strụggere, to melt, thaw trafịggere, to transfigure
scrịvere, to write past form = scritto (from the simple past tense scrissi)
Like scrịvere: ascrịvere, to ascribe circoscrịvere, to circumscribe
coscrịvere, to conscript descrịvere, to describe inscrịvere, to inscribe
iscrịvere, to enroll prescrịvere, to prescribe proscrịvere, to proscribe
reinscrịvere, to reenter riscrịvere, to rewrite sottoscrịvere, to underwrite
sovrascrịvere, to overwrite trascrịvere, to transcribe
trarre, to draw  past form = tratto (from the simple past tense trassi)
Like trarre: astrarre, to abstract attrarre, to attract
contrarre, to contract decontrarre, to relax detrarre, to detract
distrarre, to distract estrarre, to extract protrarre, to protract
ritrarre, to retract sottrarre, to subtract
addurre, to adduce past form = adotto (from the simple past tense addussi)
Like addurre: circondurre, to lead around condurre, to conduct
dedurre, to deduce indurre, to induce introdurre, to introduce
produrre, to produce reintrodurre, to reintroduce ricondurre, to bring, take again
ridurre, to reduce  riprodurre, to reproduce ritradurre, to retranslate
sedurre, to seduce tradurre, to translate trasdurre, to transduce
esịgere, to demand past form = esatto
redịgere, to edit past form = redatto
rifrạngere, to refract past form = rifratto

Some of the forms are irregular.
chiẹdere, to ask past form = chiesto
corrispọndere, to correspond past form = corrispọsto
costrịngere, to compel past form = costretto
mẹttere, to place, put past form = messo
Like mẹttere: ammẹttere, to admit ammẹttere, to admit, to let in
annẹttere, to annex commẹttere, to commit compromẹttere, to compromise
connẹttere, to connect dimẹttere, to discharge dismẹttere, to discard
emẹttere, to emit estromẹttere, to exclude, to oust frammẹttere, to insert
immẹttere, to put in inframmẹttere, to interpose inframmettersi, to interfere, to meddle
interconnẹttere, to interconnect intromẹttere, to insert intromettersi, to intervene
manomẹttere, to tamper with omẹttere, to omit permẹttere, to permit
premẹttere, to state first promẹttere, to promise radiotrasmẹttere, to broadcast, to radio.
riammẹttere, to readmit ricetrasmẹttere, to transmit and receive.
ricommẹttere, to commit again riemẹttere, to re-issue rimẹttere, to remit
ripromẹttere, to promise again ritrasmẹttere, to rebroadcast scommẹttere, to disconnect, to wager
smẹttere, to stop, to quit sottomẹttere, to subjugate  teleradiotrasmẹttere, to simulcast
trasmẹttere, to pass on or down videotrasmẹttere, to broadcast on television; to telecast
nạscere, to be born past form = nato
nascọndere, to conceal, hide past form = nascọsto
parere, to seem past form = parso
rinạscere, to be reborn past form = rinato
rispọndere, to respond past form = rispọsto
solere, to be in the habit of past form = sǫlito
strịngere, to clasp, clutch past form = stretto
vedere, to see past form = visto
Like vedere: antivedere, to foresee intravedere, to glimpse
prevedere, to see ahead provedere, to provide, look after rivedere, to see again
stravedere, to see things, hallucinate travedere, to be misled
vịvere, to live past form = vissuto
Like vịvere: rivịvere, to relive, live again, revive