Chapter 24 part 5

sọtto = below, beneath, under, underneath in all senses
when it is used with a personal pronoun, sọtto is always followed by di; before words beginning with o, it is shortened to sott’
1 (position) below, beneath, under, underneath
sọtto un albero under a tree
sọtto una coperta under a blanket
sọtto il fuoco del nẹmico under enemy fire
sọtto la lèttera B under the letter B
sọtto il mare beneath the sea
sọtto i miei occhi under my very eyes
sọtto (la) terra under (the) ground, below (the) ground
sọtto lo stesso tetto under the same roof
sọtto il naso under your nose
2 (at a low level) below, less than, under
sọtto costo below cost
sọtto il livello del mare below sea level
sọtto l'equatore below the equator
andare sọtto ~ to go below or under ~
sọtto il kilometro less than a kilometer
sọtto il limite di velocità below the speed limit
sọtto la media below average
sọtto la pari below par
sọtto zero below zero
sọtto i ~ anni below ~ age
di poco sọtto ~ just under ~
sọtto gli auspici di under the auspices of
sọtto la direzione di under the direction of
sọtto la giurisdizione di under the direction of
lavorare sọtto di ~ to work under ~
3 (mode or cause) on, under
sọtto altro nome under another name
sọtto chiave under lock and key
sọtto controllo under control
sọtto giuramẹnto under oath
sọtto pena di morte under penalty of death
sọtto ogni punto di vista from every point of view
4 (near, around)
sọtto Natale near Christmas, at Christmas time
sọtto le vacanze around vacation time
5 (commercial ) in
sọtto aceto in vinegar, pickled
sott'ǫlio in oil
sọtto sale in brine.
su = on, onto, on top of, out of, up, upon
contracted with articles as follows
su + il = sul su + i = sui su + lo = sullo su + gli = sugli
su + la = sulla su + le = sulle su + l' = sull'
1 (position - actual or figurative) on, upon
su un lato on one side
sull'orlo on the edge
sul tạvolo on the table
salire sul treno to get on or onto the train
una sull'altra one on top of the other
una vittoria sul nemico a victory over the enemy
avere un vantaggio su ~ to have an advantage over ~
regnare su un paese to rule over a country
torreggiare su ~ to tower over ~
2 (location) along, on
spalmarsi crema sul viso to spread cream on one's face
passeggiare sul lungo mare to stroll along the seafront
Parigi è sulla Senna Paris is on the Seine
3 (direction) on, to
marciare sulla capitale to march to the capital
sparare sulla folla to fire on the crowd
4 (subject) on (in the sense of about)
un libro sulla vecchiạia a book on old age
Su che cosa parlerai? About what will you speak?
5 (approximation) about, around, roughly
sul fare dell'alba about dawn
sul finire del sẹcolo around the end of the century
sul mezzodì about noon
sul presto early
sul tardi late
un uomo sulla sessantina a man about or around sixty
costare sui 200 dǫllari to cost around 200 dollars
6 (proportion) out of
sette su dieci seven out of ten
due giorni su tre two days out of three
tra = amid, amidst, among, between, within; when it is used with a personal pronoun, tra is always followed by di
1 (place) among, between
una casa tra due strade a house between two streets
la proprietà è divisa tra noi the property is divided among us
C'è poco da scegliere tra l'uno e lacto there isn't much to choose between them
tra il dolce e il salato between sweet and salty
tra le sette e le otto between seven and eight
2 (in the midst of) amid, amidst, among
tra gli applausi della folla amid the cheering of the crowd
tra gli alberi among the trees
farsi largo tra la folla to make one's way through the crowd
perso tra la folla lost in the crowd
rovistare tra vecchie foto to rummage through old photos
passare tutto il tempo tra ~ to spend all one's time among ~
3 (time or distance) in; within
tra due giorni within two days
tra poco in a little while, shortly
tra un paio d'ore in a couple of hours
tra una settimana in a week's time
tra due kilometri within two kilometers
4 (part of a group) among, of
il migliore tra tutti the best of all
uno tra tanti one of many
un esempio tra tanti one example among many
uno tra mille one in a thousand
Chi tra di voi? Which of you?
5 (to indicate a range of value, time) between ~ and ~
costare tra ~ e ~ to cost between ~ and ~  `
tra le trenta e le quaranta persọne betweem thirty and forty people
arrivare tra ~ e ~ to arrive between ~ and ~
decidere tra ~ e ~ to decide between ~ and ~
ragazzi tra i 10 e i 15 anni boys and girls between 10 and 15
avere tra ~ e ~ anni to be between ~ and ~ years of age
tramezzo = in the middle of; among; between (a synonym for tra, used in the same way)
tramite = through (in the sense of method), via
tramite banca through a bank
tramite fax via fax
tramite la posta via mail
tramite telefonata by telephone
fare sapere tramite ~ to let someone know through another person
verso = against (in the sense of versus), in the direction of , versus
1 (in the direction of) in the direction of, to, toward, towards; also translated into English with words ending in -ward or wards
when it is used with a personal pronoun, verso is always followed by di
verso l'alto upward, upwards
verso il basso downward, downwards
verso est east, eastward, eastwards, in an easterly direction,
[towards the east; likewise with the other directions, north, south, and west]
verso l'esterno outward, outwards, outwardly
verso linter inward, inwards, inwardly
andare verso ~ to go towards someone
andare verso casa to go homeward, homewards
girarsi verso ~ to turn to or towards someone
guardare verso ~ to look in someone or something's direction
voltarsi verso destra to turn right or to the right
verso l'alba towards dawn
verso sera towards evening
vicino a = beside, by, close to, in the neighborhood of, near, next to
vicino a Milano near Milan
un luogo vicino al fiume a place by the river
la sedia vicino al tạvolo the chair next to the table
vicino a me close to me
esaminare ~ più da vicino to have a closer look at something
vederci bene da vicino to see well from close up.


Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24-1 24-2 24-3 24-4

Appendix A B C D E F G H I


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